Effects of environmental surface modification methods on physical properties of hemp fibers
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In this study, hemp fibers have been pre-treated with laccase enzyme in different concentrations (1 %, 2 % and 3 % w/v) for different durations using conventional, ultrasonic energy and microwave energy methods. Weight loss (%), tensile strength, elongation (%), whiteness (%), and surface topography (SEM) properties of pre-treated hemp fibers were investigated. After processing with laccase enzyme, the energy consumptions of these three methods were compared. Best results have been obtained in 20 minutes with the conventional method, 5 minutes with the ultrasonic energy method, and 1 minute with the microwave energy method. With laccase enzyme, microwave treated hemp fibers were improved after 3 minutes treatment. SEM results have also proved the improved physical properties and color changes due to the rough surface structure.