Medikal/estetik televizyon programlarının muhafazakâr kadın izleyici alımlamasına yönelik bir etnografik çalışma
Bu çalışma, muhafazakâr kimlik bağlamında kendini konumlandıran kadın izler kitlenin, medikal/sağlık programlarının alımlamasına yönelik bir etnografik çalışmadır. Kendini muhafazakâr kimlikle konumlandıran 7 kadın izleyici ile gerçekleştirilen fokus grup çalışmasında, sağlık programlarına yönelik kadın izleyici yaklaşımları gözlemlenmiştir. Çalışma, televizyon kanallarında yayınlanan medikal/estetik konulu sağlık program içeriklerinin, kendini muhafazakâr kimlik altında konumlandıran kadın izleyiciler tarafından nasıl alımlandığı ve bu yöndeki tüketim davranışlarının nasıl değiştiğini, anlamak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Çalışmada; katılımcılar her ne kadar eğitimli ve medyanın bu alandaki etkisinin farkında olan, yüksek bilince sahip bir grup olsa da sağlık söz konusu olduğunda, estetik operasyonun tercihi, muhafazakâr kimliğin veya dini referansların önüne geçtiği gözlemlenmiştir. Çalışma grubu, sağlık gibi gerekçelerle tüketim toplumuyla, daha çok bir meta dönüşen sağlığın bu tarafını rasyonelleştirmiştir. Kamusal alanda kimliğiyle var olma mücadelesi veren muhafazakâr kadın, medya aracılığıyla, yoğun bir şekilde sunulan medikal/estetik sağlık programlarının tüketimi karşısında, her ne kadar etkin olarak kendini görse de kaçınılmaz bir şekilde edilgen bir özne olarak konumlanabileceği bulguları tespit edilmiştir.Although the history of communication tools is very old, the researches for the effects of these tools on the audience has become a focus of interest in the early 20th century. One of the most important reasons for this interest is the growing concern about the delivery of manufactured goods to mass buyers in an increasing understanding of capitalist production. At the beginning, The mass communication was originally thought to be the process of transmitting the public message to the sender. In this sense, the first time mass media theory explores "what the media does to people", the audience's use of media and the interpretation of messages are neglected. In time, the message given by the mass media communication tools has a very different effect on the audience creating the changing structure of mass communication models; cultural, interpreting, and critical approach models have been developed. In this way, they created "active/passive audience" debates which are fundamental problems in mass communication researches. Taking into account the effects of mass media, Denis McQuail has applied a triple classification to the researches done in this field (Tokgöz, 2015, s. 26): The Period of Strong Impact (1920-1940), The Period of Limited Impact (1940-1960, and Strong Impact Period again (1960 and after) It is accepted that the influences of mass media (newspapers, radio) in the 1920-1940 is called the period of strong influence. The general approach in this period is that the message sent on the mass media finds individuals and leaves a great influence on the individuals. The period of the limited influence that the messages given by mass media are considered to have not so great effect on the viewer / listener / reader. The Limited Impact Model supported more of the communications industry and communications producers. After 1960, the powerful effects of mass media began to be mentioned again. David Morley interprets this as "... from" effects "to" functions "... and back again" (Morley, 1992, s. 44). In this period, television is now more active on the audience. Stuart Hall’s, "Coding-encoding” pioneering work, has given a new perspective to audience researches. As long as the messages contain more than one meaning, Hall indicates in the "Coding-encoding" that the media messages are read by the audience as negotiators. Hall emphasizes that the ideological field was established through television but was threatened by multiple readings or critical interpretations of this field, emphasizes that the viewer passes from the passive subject to the active. The word "conservatism" is derived from the Latin word "Conservation" and spread to the world from the Frenchword “Conservateur”. The concept of "conservative" on the daily basis has different meanings. This concept may have the meanings specified by the act of modest or cautious behavior, a traditionally harmonious way of life, fear of change or rejection of change. Culture in terms of conservatism it symbolizes the past not the future. The emergence of conservatism concerns the emergence of modernitarian and modernization processes. An ideology and doctrine shaped in the context of the opposition to modernization. For this reason, conservatism is perceived as anti-modern (Yücebaş, 2013, s. 8,18). After 1980, conservatism reached a level close to today's liberalism. In Turkey, conservatism emerged with the Republican era. Conservatism, which seeks to occupy itself in the right politics in Turkey, attaches importance to preserving the historical experience and achievements and maintaining the achievements of the Turkish modernization. The mass media play a central role in presenting a new way of life to individuals in the context of the cultural rationale of late capitalism, as consumption becomes a lifestyle. In developing countries such as Turkey, large masses are convinced to be consumers as much as possible through media and consumption habits are gained. The products that meet the basic purpose requirements of the media are to present identities that will be identified with the values given to them together with their consumer products, and to purchase these artificial identities (Dağtaş & Dağtaş, 2009, s. 65). While it is believed that conservatism often evokes an opposition to consumerism, it is not surprising that they both coexist. This partnership has similar benefits for both social perspectives and even brings them closer together as a relationship of interest. The appearance of the Islamic female image in the public sphere dates back to the 1960s. After the beginning of the 1990s, with the political positions and economic empowerment achieved, the conservative woman has been "seen in the most elegant way" was basic concern. As a resulth this,the concept of fashion, and entartaiment has become available together with tesettur (Balkanlıoğlu, 2014, s. 13). After 1980, neo-liberal politics in Turkey led to the consequent economic relaxation and expansion of the capital to different social classes, a new conservative middle class with its own lifestyle and consumption practices. The image-based evaluation criteria of the public sphere is almost imperative to look modern and well-behaved for conservative woman who want to come to better places in business world. In this context, this study was conducted in order to understand how the contents of medical/ aesthetic health programs, broadcasted on television channels, are received by female viewers who position themselves under a conservative identity and to understand consumption behaviors in this direction. In modern society, health consumption is no longer a necessity, it is not any more well being; it’s to look fit, to look good, to earn status, to claim as value.Of course, the role of the media can not be denied in the commodification of health in this respect. In this context, the influence of the spread of special television channels in particular can not be excluded. Especially when the impact of new health consumption trends on secular /modern women is more easily observed by the public. The purpose of this research is what is the attitude of the conservative women towards these medical / aesthetic health programmes and this new understanding of consumption. This study is an etnographic research about the perception of female audience, who identify themself as conservative, regarding medical/aesthetic television programmes. The methodology used in this study is a focus group that involves 7 females. It has been observed that, no matter the well educated level and the awareness of that the audience has about the affect of mass media, when it comes to health, medical/aesthetic operations are prefered instead of conservative identity or religious references by rationalizing the consuming health products or services. In this study, findings were detected that In the face of these programmes, the conservative female audience sees herself as an active subject but inevitably can be positioned as passive subject. Participants rationalized this aspect of health which turned into a commodity in consumer society. Thus the conservative women refer to religious references despite the internal conflicts that the boundaries of the social identity they are in.