Kolezyum kültürü bağlamında televizyon programlarında şiddet ekme ve oyalama stratejisi
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Tarih sahnesinde insanoğlu toplum olabilme bilinciyle hareket etmiş ve ortak değerler çerçevesinde toplumsal bir bütünlük sağlanmıştır. Kültür olarak tanımlayabileceğimiz bu ortak değerler, aynı sınırlar içinde yaşayan insanları bir araya getirme gücünün yanı sıra, kitlede istendik yönde etki yaratabilmek adına siyasi düzlemde kullanılan bir etken konumundadır. Bu durum, kültürel değerler çerçevesinde biçimlendirilmiş olan etki mekanizmalarının kullanımına olanak sağlamıştır. Geçmişten günümüze kadar olan sürece bakıldığı zaman kullanılan etki mekanizmalarının kültürün yanı sıra, dönemin sahip olduğu teknolojik imkanlar doğrultusunda biçimlendiği ifade edilebilmektedir. Çalışma kapsamında incelenen Antik Roma döneminin şiddet ekme ve oyalama stratejileriyle yoğurulmuş kültür yapısı ise dönemin simgesi haline gelen Kolezyum yapısı ile kavramlaştırılmıştır. Böylece, etki mekanizması olarak eğlence ve şiddet temalı gösteriler kullanılmış ve gösteriler aracılığıyla şiddet olgusunun tatmini ile birlikte arınma ve rahatlama sağlanarak, kitlesel boyutta memnuniyet hissi yaratılmıştır. Kitlesel boyutta etkili olan bu sirkülasyon ise siyasi düzlemde oyalama stratejisi olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmada, günümüz televizyon programlarında şiddet ekme ve oyalama stratejisi bağlamında Kolezyum kültürünün etkileri üzerinde durulmuş ve elde edilen bulgular ışığında çalışma sonuçlandırılarak, konuyla ilgili öneriler sunulmuştur.On the scene of history, mankind has acted with the consciousness of being able to become a society and has provided a social integrity around common values. In addition to the power to bring the people who living within the same boundaries together, these common values which we can define as culture are a factor on the political level in order to create desired influnce on people. This has enabled the use of influence mechanisms shaped in the context of cultural values. When we look at the process from the past to the present day, it can be said that the mechanisms of influence used are shaped by the technological possibilities of the period as well as the culture. The cultural structure kneaded by the violence cultivation and distraction strategy of the Ancient Roman period which studied within the scope of the study was conceptualized with the Colosseum structure which became the symbol of the period. Thus, through the demonstrations which used as the mechanism of influence, the phenomenon of violence has been satisfied and feeling of satisfaction has been created in a massive scale. This situation has been used as a distraction strategy on the political level. In the cultural structure of Ancient Rome, the performances and games are at the forefront. The demonstrations originally consisted of events such as car races, theater shows, the revival of important battle scenes and survival challenges against wild animals. In the following period, the activities were spread and diversified by the powers of the government, which observed the influence of the demonstrations on the individuals. In particular, the demonstration culture of Ancient Rome has gained a different dimension as the gladiatorial fights, which are thought to belong to the Etruscas according to the general belief in the literature, have been included in the Ancient Roman demonstrations through cultural transfer. The gladiatorial fights, originally set as a glory and reputation show for the aristocratic families, have become part of the mass culture by stripping out of the elite culture form with grasping the interest and influence on the mass. In this direction, gladiatorial fights began to become widespread as an effective tool on the political platform, as they could touch the whole segment of society, leading to the construction of a demonstration center in many places. As a result of the structural and sociological characteristics of these structures, the Colosseum has become a place that best reflects the show culture of Ancient Rome and symbolizes this culture. With the demonstrations on the basis of the Colosseum culture, a common meaning has been created within the society and in this process the Colosseum has become a pleasure area filled with feelings like violence and savagery as a social activity area and a necessity to be fulfilled as well as an ideological system, In the process of Romanization, which defined the expansionist policy of Ancient Roman in order to create a common empire, different societies were used as a means of processes such as Romanization politics. All these uses of the demonstrations have made significant contributions to the development of the Colosseum Culture. Violence is used as an important figure in the structure of the Colosseum culture. It is directed through violent sentiments in Colosseum culture. The systematic manner of violence in the shows creates pleasure in the audience and this pleasure also brings satisfaction. Psychological satisfaction is experienced by eliminating the desire for violence and death in people with the effect of katharsis, which is experienced as a result of purification from feeling of violence. This spiritual satisfaction situation facilitates political management by creating calming effect in people. This fact of Colosseum culture has been used effectively in Ancient Rome during both Empire and Republican periods. Another dimension of the Colosseum culture is the use of demonstrations as a distraction strategy. Since the scheme of ruling / managed in the history of mankind has been established, the power owners is seeking to facilitate management in the direction of its own interests and strategies. This attitude, which is desired to be realized, draws the attention of the people to a different direction and provides administrative freedom especially in political and financial matters. In this direction, the strategy of distraction is carried out by creating an artificial agenda by the ruling power or by using items of mass culture. In the whole process, a number of effect instruments are needed which can be used as a distraction strategy. The instrument of influence used in this context in Ancient Rome was amphitheater constructions such as the Colosseum. In particular, with the standardization and massification of leisure time, the effects of relaxation on the social level have been created along with the demonstrations and in terms of power owners, the atmosphere of distraction has been created. The ideas of the Colosseum culture form the concepts of bread and circus. In this context, the power owners has kept the public away from important affairs by giving them free bread and exhibitions, so that people have embraced the way of life as a way of life and are isolated from the important issues on the agenda. The fact that the demonstrations are now a lifestyle for the public has created an intense demand for bread and circus. As a matter of fact, this fact led to many demonstrations in the history of Ancient Rome and the idea of the culture that was cultivated with the Colosseum culture was used as a force mechanism on the mass. The demonstrations and the mass effect created on the basis of the Colosseum culture require Guy Debord's work on the demonstration society. Guy Debord describes the concept of demonstration as both a part of society itself and a community, as well as a means of integration. In particular, it emphasizes the fact that it is a part of society and it is a sector that brings together all views and consciousness and also this sector is the place of deceived view and misconception (Debord, 2014: 34). When we look at the reflections of the spectacle society in the Colosseum culture, we can express that all the views are gathered in the arenas and in this process the shows are organized within the framework of aims such as directing thought, unconscious activities against real events and phenomena and cultivating consciousness in terms of interests. The coding and decoding work is an important research in order to be able to create an individual and social profile. In this context, how the individuals position themselves in the face of incoming messages and how they evaluate the incoming messages with the reading method are included in the research (Aydın, 2007: 126). In this process, cultural values affect the process of decoding. The reflections of this situation in the Colosseum culture are provided by the construction of bread and circus ideas, the pity and fear dimension of the katharsis concept and the social status of being a Roman citizen. As a matter of fact, the demonstrations are coded as a place where needs are met on a massive scale, especially in the sense of violence. Another area of study that has benefited from the context of Colosseum culture is the use and satisfaction theory. Researchers working within the framework of this theory have tended to analyze human needs and categorized the needs of media use. The needs assessed in the context of different perspectives in the literature have been organized in four basic categories by Blumler, McQuail and Brown. These categories include entertainment, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance. Today, with the development of technology, mass media have emerged. Among these tools, due to the visual and auditory characteristics that they possess, the television front has a very wide effect size both in the individual and in the social frame. Television, which is actively used in many functions such as perception management, agenda setting and production of the receivables, has been frequently evaluated as a mass distraction strategy. In order to be able to provide this, violence has been resorted to just as it is in the Colosseum culture and administrative convenience has been provided in the sense of gratification of obtaining end use satisfaction. This hypothesis is the aim of the study. This study focused on effects of Colosseum cultures in the context of violence cultivation and distraction strategy in present-day television programs and ends with some recomendation which obtained from findings.